Allegorical engraving, by Reinier Vinkeles after Jacob Buys.


Very refined engraving made by Reinier Vinkeles after Jacob Buys. It shows an allegorical representation in which one woman holds up the freedom hat and the other holds the cornucopia. In this combination it refers to free trade as a source of abundance. The image is oval with a diameter of 8 cm and a diameter of 6 cm. the image is printed on heavy handmade paper. The print is in good condition, outside the print there are some acid spots. (see picture)

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Jacobus Buys (November 19, 1724 – April 7, 1801) was a Dutch painter and engraver.

Buys was born in Amsterdam as the son of a wig maker. He studied under Cornelis Pronk, Jacob de Wit and Cornelis Troost and eventually became director of the Amsterdam Drawing Academy. He painted portraits, bas-reliefs and tapestries, designed book illustrations and made copies of the works of the best masters of the seventeenth century. Buys joined the Amsterdam Saint Luke Guild in 1750 and died in 1801.

Reinier Vinkeles (1741, Amsterdam – 1816, Amsterdam), was an 18th-century painter and engraver from the Northern Netherlands, the later teacher of various talented artists. He studied with Jan Punt for ten years and joined the Amsterdam City Drawing Academy in 1762. In 1765 he traveled to Brabant with Jurriaan Andriessen and Izaäk Schmidt. In 1770 he left for Paris, where he studied for a year with Jacques-Philippe Le Bas and also met the Dutch artists Hermanus Numan and Izaak Jansz de Wit (1744-1809). When he returned to Amsterdam, he worked on making prints for book illustrations, including portraits, topographical and architectural prints, copies to Dutch masters and theater sets. He became director of the Stadstekenacademie] and was a member of the artists’ association Pax Artium Nutrix. He became the teacher of Jacob Ernst Marcus, Jacobus Millies, his son Abraham Vinkeles, his brother Harmanus Vinkeles (1745-1804), his son Johannes Vinkeles and Daniël Vrijdag.

A freedom hat is a hat that is used as a symbol of freedom in, among other things, painting, coats of arms and coins. The liberty hat, or a pileus (a simple convex hat) is a symbolic representation that occurs in many ways. The emblem is from classical antiquity, where the Roman statesman and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero already wrote that the released or redeemed slave was allowed to wear a headgear as a sign of his freedom. That emblem was adopted by the Dutch rebels during the Eighty Years’ War. This can be seen on coins, prints and title pages of books, but also in sculpture or glass painting. One of the four emblematic figures on the corners of Prince William of Orange’s grave in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft, wears a hat with the inscription Aurea Libertas (Golden Freedom). The hat often adorns a stick, peak, lance or spear.

Source: Freedom Hat

The Cornucopia (Latin; cornu (horn) and copia (stock)) is called the Cornucopia in Dutch. This legendary object, which (as the name suggests) gave abundance, originates from Greek mythology. According to the myth, the Cornucopia is the horn of the goat Amalthea, which Zeus was suckling on Crete. As a thank you, Zeus put her in the sky as a constellation and her horn gave the holder everything he or she desired. The Romans mainly associated their goddess Fortuna with the Horn of plenty, but also the goddesses of Hope (Spes) and the Concordia (Concordia) were depicted with the Cornucopia. Caligula made a sestertia of himself with his three sisters on the reverse, each with a cornucopia. The Horn of Plenty is often used as a symbol in heraldry. In North America, it is often associated with Thanksgiving Day.